Showing posts with label Cooking Tips. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Cooking Tips. Show all posts

Monday, September 24, 2012

Cooking Tips: Cookies

Image from Google

Helpful Hints for Perfect Shortbread                             
Shortbread is so easy to make, and so utterly delicious. The simplicity of the butter, sugar, flour recipe can’t, in my opinion, be beat. To make yours come out perfectly every time, there are just a few simple directives to follow:

Bake your shortbread in the top third of your oven. This way you won’t get too much bottom heat that will cause the bottom of the shortbread to overcook before the top is done.

To make sure that your shortbread releases from the pan cleanly, be sure it is completely cooked in the middle before you remove the pan from the oven. Directions for shortbread baked on a cookie sheet often tell you to cook the shortbread only until the top of the cookies just barely begin to color. This is not the case with shortbread made in one of the Brown Bag Cookie Art Shortbread Pans.

Since you will be cooking your shortbread in the top third of the oven, you will get some top browning as the cookie bakes. The surface of the shortbread should be a toasty light brown when it is cooked. It should never appear raw or slightly opaque in the middle. If it is under-baked in the middle, it will probably stick in the pan when you go to unmold it.

Be sure to let the shortbread cool in the pan for 10 minutes before you flip the pan over to unmold it. This gives the delicate cookie a chance to firm up a bit. After cooling for 10 minutes, hold the pan parallel to and 1” above a wooden or plastic cutting board, face down, and unceremoniously drop it. This jars the shortbread, and it drops right out of the pan.

Slice the shortbread into serving pieces using a thin, sharp knife, while it is still hot. If you wait until it cools, it will become flakey and too fragile to cut cleanly.


Secret Tips for Successful Cookies
Making the perfect cookie involves more than just having the perfect recipe. You need to know the secrets to having your cookies turn out perfect every time.

While you don't have to follow a recipe exactly, neglecting some important details can make a finished product less than desired.

In her book Cookies and Brownies (1999, Warner Book, A Time Warner Company, New York) Alice Medrich states that "inaccurate measurements do not always spoil the cookies." You can toss in extra raisins, nuts, chocolate chips, coconut, or even vanilla. You can substitute dried fruits for nuts or vice versa and experiment with extracts and flavors. But if your flour measurement is inaccurate, your cookies may be tough, dry, doughy, or leaden.

Always measure the baking soda, baking powder, salt, and especially flour accurately. Before measuring the flour, stir it with a spoon if it is compacted. Then lightly spoon flour into your measuring cup until it is heaped above the rim. Do NOT shake or tap the cup to settle the flour, or you will have more flour than you need. Slide a spatula or knife across the top to level.

When measuring liquid ingredients, use a clear plastic or glass container with lines up the sides. Set the container on the counter and pour the liquid up to the appropriate mark. Lower your head to read the measurement at eye level.

When you mix the flour to the moist ingredients, stir just until blended. Be careful not to over mix or beat your cookie dough, unless you like tough cookies! One helpful hint is to mix the dry ingredients thoroughly first. You want the dry ingredients to be fluffed up rather than compacted so it blends easily with the dough. You can use a wire whisk to mix the dry ingredients.

Another helpful hint in making any recipe is to get the necessary ingredients ready in advance. Some ingredients, such as butter, may need to be at room temperature. If you're mixing with an electric mixer, use butter at room temperature, but if you're mixing by hand, you will want to soften the butter to the consistency of mayonnaise. (You can soften the butter in the microwave at 30 percent power for a few seconds at a time.)

When baking cookies, choose light-colored, dull-finished, heavy-gauge cookie sheets. Old cookie sheets that are dark can make the bottom of the cookies overly brown. Shiny sheets work best for cookies that should not brown too much on the bottom. Do not use insulated sheets for cookies high in butter, shaped cookies, and some drop cookies. The butter may start to melt and leak out before the dough sets. If this happens, the cookies may have thin edges.

Non-stick cookie sheets are easier to clean and help ensure even baking; however, the dough may not spread as much and you may end up with a thicker cookie. On the other hand, rich cookies can spread if baked on a greased sheet. Note the directions in the recipe, and only grease the cookie sheets if specified. When you do grease a pan, use a light coating or your cookies can flatten or spread too much. (If you'd rather not grease, you can line the pan with parchment paper.)

Except for bar cookies, don't use cookie sheets with high sides which can deflect heat and also make it difficult for you to remove your cookies. Your sheets should be two inches narrower and shorter than the oven to allow for even baking. If you don't have enough cookie sheets, you can invert a jelly roll pan or use heavy duty foil. Put the foil on the cookie sheet as it comes out of the oven and bake immediately.

For any dough that needs to be rolled out, refrigerate the dough for a couple hours (or overnight). Use a rolling pin and lightly flour your work surface. If you use too much flour, the dough will absorb it and become tough and dry. You can also roll the dough between sheets of wax paper (or a cut-apart plastic bag). Since the dough softens quickly, only work with part at a time. Keep the rest cooled until ready to use. The thinner the dough, the crispier the cookie.

If you're cutting out cookie designs, dip your cookie cutters in flour to prevent sticking or tearing of the cookies. Cut the cookie shapes as close as possible to lessen scraps. Save the scraps until the end. Press together gently and roll. (Don't handle the scraps too much or they will become tough.)

When making sliced cookies, finely chop any nuts or fruit that you add to the dough to make it easier to slice. Chill the dough and cut with a think sharp knife. Wipe the knife occasionally with a clean paper towel. Occasionally turn the roll of dough while you slice it to get nice round slices.

For drop cookies, make your cookies about the same size so they bake evenly. A cookie scoop helps form equal-size lumps. Space all cookies evenly and leave enough space between each cookie to allow for spreading while baking.

Preheat the oven which takes about fifteen to twenty minutes, depending on your oven. Use the upper and lower thirds of the oven, reversing sheets from upper to lower and front to back about halfway through the baking period to ensure even baking. If you use only one sheet, position the rack in the center, and change from back to front halfway through the baking cycle.

Always cool the pan before baking another batch. A warm pan causes the dough to melt which can cause overspreading, deformed cookies, or altered baking times. If you place cookies on parchment paper of foil pan liner, you may slide the cookies onto the warm cookie sheet, as long as you place it directly in the oven. (Baking times may be a bit shorter.)

To check cookies for doneness, press down lightly in the middle to see if it bounces back. Bake sliced cookies until the edges are firm and the bottoms are just lightly browned. Generally, cookies are done when the edges begin to brown, or when they are golden. Every pan bakes differently, depending on the material, thickness, weight, and surface reflection.

To fine-tune the baking of cookies, test bake a couple cookies. If your cookies spread too much (and you didn't over grease the pan), then you may need to add a tablespoon or two of flour. If you're not certain of the time for baking, you can test bake four cookies, and remove two of them a minute or two earlier than the others. Let them cool before tasting them.

Place cookies on wire racks to cool evenly, so the bottoms don't get soggy. You can transfer some cookies immediately to the wire racks, while others need a couple minutes to cool. If the cookie bends or breaks when transferring, wait another minute before trying.

Thoroughly cool cookies before storing them to prevent them from become soggy. Store cookies in air-tight containers such as tins, cookie jars with tight-fitting lids or zipper-type bags. Clear plastic containers are the best since the plastic preserves freshness, and the clarity lets you see what's inside. For delicate or frosted cookies, use a wide container and put parchment paper between the layers. Separate the hard and soft cookies and cookies with different flavors. If you store them together, the soft cookies will cause the crisp ones to go limp, and the flavors often mix.

Source: Rachel Keller
Adapted from:

Preparing Cookie Baking Sheets:
Prepare cookie sheets and baking pans as directed before you begin to mix the recipe. If light greasing is suggested, use vegetable oil spray or a small amount of solid vegetable shortening. Do not use butter or margarine as it may burn on cookie sheets. You might want to use baker's parchment paper (available in many supermarkets and specialty stores) instead of greasing cookie sheets, it will also save on clean-up time.

Cutting Bar Cookies:
To prevent the jagged edges that often occur when cutting cooled cookie bars: 1. Use a sharp knife to score the bars as soon as the pan comes out of the oven. 2. Then cut the cooled bars along the scored lines.

Cooling Cookies:
Allow cookies to cool slightly before removing them from the baking sheet. As soon as they are firm enough to move without breaking, transfer them to a wire rack to cool completely. Do not leave cookies on the hot baking sheet, they will continue to cook.

Freezing Cookies and Cookie Dough
Frozen Cookies
Too many cookies on your hands? Want to have a large variety of cookies ready-made at your fingertips? Like to have cookie dough around for those last-minute needs? Move those frozen chicken pot pies and cartons of fudge swirl ice cream aside. It's cookie-freezing time!

Freezing unbaked cookie dough
Most cookie doughs freeze extremely well and can be kept frozen for up to 4 or 6 weeks. The most important thing to keep in mind is that the dough will absorb any odd odors present in your freezer if it's not properly wrapped and sealed. To prevent this smell-sponge effect-as well as freezer burn-wrap the dough securely twice. It's also a very good idea to write the type of cookie dough and the date it was frozen on the outside of the package. When you are ready to bake simply let the dough defrost in the refrigerator. This will take several hours, so plan ahead. The cookie doughs that freeze best are shortbreads, chocolate chip, peanut butter, refrigerator, sugar, and brownies, just to name a few. The types of cookie doughs that do not freeze well are cake-like cookies and cookies that have a very liquidy batter, such as madeleines and tuiles.

Freezing already baked cookies
Freezing baked cookies is a great way to preserve their freshness. Baked cookies will keep in the freezer for up to 3 or 4 weeks. As with freezing cookie dough, the most important thing to keep in mind is that you don't want your cookies to absorb any odors. Double-wrap the cookies securely and write the date and the type of cookie on the outside of the package. When you are ready to eat your frozen cookies, just let them come to room temperature, or, for you impatient types, pop them in the microwave on high for about 30 seconds. (Times will differ depending on the size of cookie you're defrosting.) We still haven't come across a baked cookie that doesn't freeze well. So feel free to freeze loads of assorted cookies to keep yourself supplied with yummy goodies, any time.


Creative Cookie Decorating With Royal Icing
Decorating transforms the simplest cut-out cookies into sensational miniature sweets. Both children and adults can enjoy creating edible masterpieces and any occasion can provide the inspiration—you'll quickly discover that the design possibilities are endless!

Perhaps the best thing about this craft is its simplicity. Our Bloomin' Sugar Cookies (see recipe and instructions below) are decorated with Royal Icing, a simple mixture of confectioners' sugar, water and egg white or meringue powder. Decorating with royal icing is a skill often used by professional bakers, but with a little practice and our easy instructions, you can achieve the same fanciful results. So turn your kitchen into an art studio with some simple equipment, straightforward techniques and lots of imagination.

It's Time To Decorate
Allow plenty of time and space for a decorating session. Cover surfaces with waxed paper to keep counters clean and create plenty of space for cookies to dry before storing. When working with several colors at once, disposable pastry bags are handy. Or, make your own decorating cones with several layers of waxed or parchment paper.

You can also turn small, zipper-top plastic bags into pastry bags by cutting a tiny snip off the corner. Stand bags in juice glasses for easy filling. Fill the bags no more than half full.

Icing 101
To color the icing, divide small amounts of icing into custard cups. Reserve one cup as white icing. Add food coloring, a tiny bit at a time, to remaining icings. Mix with a spoon or toothpick until well blended, gradually adding more coloring until desired color is attained.

To ice a cookie, stir a few drops of water or flavoring into a small amount of icing until it reaches spreading consistency. (Set aside remaining thick icing for piping.) Using a small, flexible spatula, spread baked, cooled cookies with a base coat of thinned icing. Dip spatula in warm water as needed to achieve a smooth finish. Let the base dry completely before applying piping. (Note: This thinned icing dries out quickly so cover any unused portions.)

Use a pastry bag filled with thick icing to pipe designs on top of cookies. If you're a beginner, use no more than two colors and practice making decorations on a sheet of waxed paper before getting started.

Tricks of the Trade
Useful Equipment

Flexible metal spatulas, writing tips, plenty of custard cups, toothpicks, brushes, waxed paper and disposable pastry bags.

Let icing dry completely before storing cookies or piping one color onto another.

To dry iced cookies faster, place in a 200F oven with the door ajar for 5 minutes.

If you make more icing than you use, cover it with plastic wrap and refrigerate for a few days. Stir gently if mixture separates.

Recipe For Bloomin’ Sugar Cookies
Looking for a way to make someone’s day? Give them this delicious bouquet of colorful cookie flowers!


1/2 cup (1 stick) butter or margarine, softened
1/3 cup granulated sugar
1 large egg
2 cups all-purpose flour
1 teaspoon baking powder
1/4 teaspoon salt
1 cup white chocolate chips, melted
Wooden skewers
Assorted food colorings
1 box (16 ounces) confectioners' sugar
6 tablespoons water
2 tablespoons meringue powder

Preparation Time: 45 minutes plus chilling

Baking Time: 6-8 minutes per batch

Makes: 3 dozen cookies

  1. In a large bowl, using mixer set on high, beat butter and granulated sugar until light and fluffy; on medium speed, beat in egg. In a medium bowl, combine flour, baking powder and salt; add to butter mixture. Beat in melted white chocolate until thoroughly combined, about 1 minute. Form dough into a disk; wrap in plastic. Chill until slightly firm, about 15 minutes.
  2. Spread wooden skewers in a large pan; cover with water. Add green food coloring to water in pan. While wearing gloves, gently toss skewers around the pan. Transfer skewers to wire rack; let dry completely.
  3. Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (180 C). Roll dough to a 1/4-inch thickness. Using flower cookie cutters, cut out shapes; place on ungreased baking sheets. Place a tinted skewer underneath bottom end of each shape. Gently press dough into skewers. (This will ensure that the cookies will bake around the skewers and help prevent them from falling off.)
  4. Bake cookies until lightly golden, 6–8 minutes. Let cookies cool completely.
  5. In a large bowl, using a mixer set on medium, beat confectioners’ sugar, water and meringue powder until fluffy, about 4 minutes. Divide icing among small bowls; tint icing with food colorings as desired.
  6. Using a small paintbrush, spread tinted icing over base of cookies; let dry.
  7. Fill separate pastry bags fitted with medium writing tips with remaining tinted icings. Working with 1 cookie at a time, pipe an outline onto cookies; pipe lines and dots in contrasting colors. Let cookies dry completely.

Tuesday, August 28, 2012

Cooking Tips : Baking Cheesecake

Image Source Google

What is Cheesecake?

Though a cheesecake can be savory (and served with crackers as an appetizer), most of us think of the term as describing a luscious, rich dessert. The texture of any cheesecake can vary greatly--from light and airy to dense and rich to smooth and creamy. All cheesecakes begin with cheese--usually cream cheese, ricotta cheese, cottage cheese or sometimes Swiss or cheddar cheese. A cheesecake may or may not have a crust, which can be a light dusting of bread crumbs, a cookie crust or a pastry crust. The filling is made by creaming the cheese and mixing it with eggs, sugar (for desserts) and other flavorings. The mixture is then poured into a special springform pan and baked. After baking, the cheesecake is thoroughly chilled and generally topped by sour cream, whipped cream, fruit or some other embellishment.

Copyright (c) 1995 by Barron's Educational Series, from The New Food Lover's Companion, Second Edition, by Sharon Tyler Herbst

What is Cream Cheese?

Thanks to American ingenuity, cream cheese is the most popular ingredient for cheesecake and was developed in 1872. The appellation comes from the smooth, creamy texture of this mildly tangy, spreadable cheese. The soft, unripened cheese is made from cow's milk and by law must contain at least 33 percent milk fat and not more than 55 percent moisture. Gum arabic is added to some cream cheese to increase firmness and shelf life. American neufchâtel cheese is slightly lower in calories because of a lower milk fat content (about 23 percent). It also contains slightly more moisture. Light or lowfat cream cheese has about half the calories as the regular style and nonfat cream cheese has zero fat grams. The easily spreadable whipped cream cheese has been made soft and fluffy by air being whipped into it. It has fewer calories per serving than regular cream cheese only because there's less volume per serving. Cream cheese is sometimes sold mixed with other ingredients such as herbs, spices or fruit. Refrigerate cream cheese, tightly wrapped, and use within a week after opening. If any mold develops on the surface, discard the cream cheese.

From The New Food Lover's Companion, Second Edition, by Sharon Tyler Herbst

How to soften Cream Cheese

Place completely unwrapped packages of cream cheese in microwavable bowl. Microwave on High 30 to 45 seconds or until slightly softened. You can even leave the cream cheese to room temperature.

Cheesecake Tips and Ideas

  1. A springform pan (with removable side and bottom) is the most commonly used pan for making cheesecakes.
  2. Avoid over-beating the batter. Over-beating incorporates additional air and tends to cause cracking on the surface of the cheesecake.
  3. For even marbling and the best distribution of added ingredients, such as chocolate chips or nuts, do not over-soften or over-beat the cream cheese.
  4. Avoid over-baking: Cheesecake baking times are not always exact, due to variations in ovens. The cheesecake will continue to bake after it is removed from the oven. The center of the cheesecake should be just slightly moist when it is ready to be removed.
  5. Upon removal from the oven, loosen the cake from the edge of the pan by running the tip of a knife or narrow spatula between the top edge of the cake and the side of the pan. This allows the cake to pull away freely from the pan as it cools.
  6. Cool the cheesecake on a wire rack away from drafts.
  7. After a cheesecake has cooled completely, gently loosen the entire side of the cheesecake from the pan with the tip of a knife while slowly releasing the springform pan clamp. Carefully remove the side of the pan.
  8. Baked cheesecakes freeze well. Cool them completely and wrap them securely in heavy-duty foil or plastic wrap, but do not freeze cheesecakes with garnishes or toppings.

More Cheesecake Success Hints:
Preventing Surface Cracks

The most common complaint is cracking that develops through the middle of the cheesecake during or after baking.

To Prevent Surface Cracking:

Bake the cheesecake in a water bath to keep the oven moisture high and the heat gentle. (A water bath is using a larger pan containing water in which to place the smaller cheesecake baking pan.)

Don't overbake the cheesecake. When perfectly done, there will still be a two to three-inch wobbly spot in the middle of the cheesecake; the texture will smooth out as it cools.

Cheesecake will shrink as it cools. Generously greasing the sides of the baking pan before pouring in batter will allow the cake to pull away from the pan as it cools and shrinks instead of pulling apart from the middle.

Cheesecakes have a tendency to crack, but they don't have to. This favorite American dessert can have a cracked surface for a number of reasons. One cause is air trapped inside the batter - a result of over-mixing. Once in the oven, the air bubble expands and wants to escape from the cake. As it finds its way out of the top of the cake, it creates a crack or crevice in the cake's surface. Another cause of a cracked surface is a drastic temperature change.

How to avoid cracks then? Be sure to mix your cheesecake batter well, eliminating all possible lumps in the cream cheese BEFORE you add the eggs. It is the eggs that will hold air in the batter, so add them last, and mix as little as possible once they are in the mix.

Also, be sure to cook your cheesecake gently. Use a water bath - wrap the bottom of your springform pan in aluminum foil and place it in a larger pan with water in it, just halfway up the outside of the springform pan. This will allow the cheesecake to cook more slowly and evenly.

Finally, cook your cheesecake slowly - at 325º F. After about 45 minutes, turn your oven off and leave the cheesecake inside the turned off oven for another hour. Cool at room temperature with a plate or cookie sheet inverted over the cheesecake to slow the cooling. Only then can you refrigerate the cake, which you will need to do for another 6 hours at least.

If after all this, you still have a crack, make a topping or a sauce for your cheesecake, and tell all your guests that you intentionally made a special crack in the top of the cake to hold more sauce!

Very Important Tips on Preventing Cracking

Cheesecakes with cornstarch or flour added to the batter do not crack as easily from overbaking. The starch molecules will actually get in between the egg proteins preventing them from over-coagulating. No over-coagulating, no cracks!! Some bakers add extra insurance to a cheesecake recipe that doesn't contain cornstarch or flour, by simply adding 1 tablespoon to1/4 cup of cornstarch to the batter with the sugar.

With today's trend to produce larger and higher cheesecakes and to bake them without the benefit of a waterbath, they tend to overbake at the edge before the center of the cake has reached the temperature necessary to set (coagulate) the eggs. Here, your cheesecake will tend to form deep cracks upon cooling.

Don't bake your cheesecake at too high a temperature (I recommend baking cheesecakes at 300-325 degrees F at the highest) The egg proteins will overcoagulate from too much heat which eventually shrink when cooled, causing cracking usually in its center or tiny cracks all over its top. If you heat it up to fast or cool it down too fast you're also going to get cracks.

Freezing Cheesecakes

Cheesecakes can be frozen. Careful wrapping is very important. To freeze, place a fully cooled cheesecake in the freezer, uncovered, for 1 hour. If it's in a springform pan, remove sides of pan and freeze with the pan bottom in place. After 1 hour, use a knife to separate the cheesecake from the pan bottom. Slide it onto a foil-wrapped piece of heavy cardboard. Wrap in plastic wrap, then carefully place it inside a large freezer bag or wrap it in heavy duty aluminum foil. Label and date. Freezing for more than a month is not recommended to retain the best quality.

For a cheesecake with topping, such as fruit, always freeze cheesecake WITHOUT the topping and add the topping before serving.

Always thaw a cheesecake overnight in the refrigerator. When partially thawed, transfer it from the cardboard bottom to a serving plate.

" Water Bath " For Baking Cheesecakes

A "water bath" is a method that will help keep your cheesecake from cracking while baking.Instructions For Water Bath

First, take heavy aluminum foil, and wrap it around sides and bottom of your springform pan or cheesecake pan with removable bottom. This prevents leakage while baking your cheesecake.

Place your springform pan or cheesecake pan (filled with cheesecake batter and crust) into a larger deep baking pan* that it will fit into easily.

*Note: The larger pan should be at least 2-3 inches in depth.

Place in pre-heated oven. With a kettle filled with very hot water, pour water into the larger pan about halfway up, or approximately 1 1/2 to 2 inches.

Bake cheesecake as directed. When cheesecake is done, remove springform pan or cheesecake pan (if using) from "water bath" in oven. Carefully remove larger pan with water in it from oven. It will be very hot. Discard water when it has cooled.

Remove aluminim foil from sides and bottom of pan after your cheescake has cooled completely in the refrigerator.

When you are ready to release sides of springform pan, or remove cheesecake from a cheesecake pan with removable bottom (if using) and cheescake has cooled in refrigerator at least 4 hours or overnight; this is the best time to remove aluminum foil.

Thursday, November 17, 2011

Cooking Tips: All About Flour

I found out this useful information and would like to share with all of you a little bit about flour. There are many types and let find out which one is more suitable for baking cakes, cookies, pastries, breads and etc.

1. All Propose Flour.
Most common flour and most available in the market. It is suitable for baking cakes, biscuits, pastries or breads. It contains moderate protein about 9-10.5%.

2. Bread Flour.
Also known as high protein flour which contains up to 12.6-13.6% of protein. It is most suitable for making pastries and breads. Gluten will be produced by kneading the flour and will give chewy texture to the bread.

3. Pau Flour
Pau is a steamed filled-bun. This flour is so white and will give the bun soft and fine texture. The protein content for this flour is 9.5 - 10.5%.

4. Superfine Flour.
Also known as the cake flour. It is low in protein content and suitable for baking cakes and pastries.

5. Red Rose Flour.
This flour has a little bit of corn flour mixed in and it will give the crunchy texture. So, it is most suitable for making all kind of biscuits.

6. Water Lily Flour.
Also known as Hong Kong flour and it is very white in colour and fine. It is use to make layered cake or pau and will give a soft texture.

7. Hoen Kwe Flour.
This flour is made from mung beans (kacang hijau) and is used in most of Malaysian's cuisine such as Kuih Seri Muka and Pandan Layered Cake. It is sold in 85g packets and can be found in various colour such as green, red, white and yellow.

8. Self Raising Flour
It is one of the cake flour and contains a little bit of sodium bicarbonate and baking powder mixed in. If you use this flour for baking, there is no need to add more of the sodium bicarbonate or baking powder more into the recepi.

9. Glutinous Rice Flour.
It is called Tepung Pulut in Malaysia yang imported mostly from Thailand. This flour is high in amylopectin and the texture is chewy, sticky and more elastic compared to other flour. This flour to make dessert such as Onde-onde, Mochi (Japanese cuisine), dumpling etc.

10. Rice Flour.
This flour has no gluten compared to wheat flour which has high gluten and this criteria make the texture of the food hard and crunchy. It can be use to make coating batter for frying, rice biscuit, rice vermicelli or rice noodles.

11. Wholemeal Flour.
This is a purely made from wheat and has high in fiber. Normally, it is used to make breads or heavy textured muffins.

12. Custard Flour.
Besides giving a good aroma, this flour will makes your cake texture more dense. You can add or replace some of wheat flour if you like for a good texture. But if you want more fluffy cake texture, try adding baking powder and sodium bicarbonate to the wheat flour.

13. Tapioca Flour.
It also called Tepung Ubi or Tepung Kanji in Malaysia. It is high in starch and use to thicken the batter.

14. Cornflour.
This flour is obtain from milled whole kernel of corn. Cornflour can be mixed with wheat flour to reduce gluten for cakes, pastries and cookies. It is also used as binder, thickener and filler.